Human activity is invariably associated with the waste. However, the desire to reduce waste increased recently, driven by economic interests and strict environmental constraints. One of the paradoxes of our times consists in the fact that with increasing wealth, despite technological advances, the amount of waste per capita is increasing steadily. Transport and storage of waste is scarce. At the same time there are technologies and facilities not only provide a solution, but benefits as well, which is about extracting energy from waste.
It is most reasonable for those wastes which cannot be recycled, to undergo a process and disposal, by energy extraction from them, which isn’t small at all. In a volume of municipal waste for example, it contains about one third the energy of the same amount as coal. The need for fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced significantly if the energy recovery of organic components in municipal waste. The main method of extracting energy from the thermo chemical waste is incineration, pyrolysis and gasification, and biochemical – anaerobic digestion with subsequent extraction of methane.
Decomposition of biodegradable waste under the influence of anaerobic bacteria in oxygen-free environment is known as anaerobic digestion and is a major method for treatment of municipal waste. It is particularly suitable for treating organic food waste from households, restaurants, businesses for food and drink, including fats.
Capture of landfill gas
The gas generated in landfills, are obtained by previously described method of anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Every modern facility meeting the legal requirements contained gas drainage, gas collection wells, gas collection pipes and equipment for incineration or recovery of the generated gases. Separated from the landfill gas typically contains methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. These gases are captured by a system of wells and horizontal tubes that are placed before or during operation of the landfill. Thus, entities landfill biogas is used as an alternative source of energy and simultaneously solves the potential leakage of explosive substances.
Burning garbage is one method of achieving compliance with European requirements for minimizing the quantity of landfilled waste through effective implementation of the hierarchy of waste management. The combustion energy can be used for electricity generation or heating.